Ngunawal Cultural Walk and Talk

Plant identification during the walk and talk lead by Traditional Custodian Tyronne Bell
About the walk and talk

This session was about building connections with people and the land: an opportunity to learn more about diversity, indigenous culture and the local area. The walk and talk was led by Tyronne Bell from Thunderstone Aboriginal Cultural and Land Management Services. Tyronne talked about his culture and traditional Ngunawal uses of plants and animals found at the site.

Key points from the workshop
  1. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people have a spiritual connection with the land, that can be expressed in some part through stories about plants, insects and animals in a particular location.
  2. By studying the behaviour of different species of insects, Aboriginal people used their traits to help them in their every day lives.  For example, Tyronne told us about the ability of ants to regulate the temperature of their nest by bring different coloured gravel to the surface of the nest. White in summer and black in winter. Meat ants were used by some Aboriginal people to clean the carcasses of fish so the bones could be used as needles.
  3. If you find Aboriginal artifacts, scar trees or other relics it is important to leave them intact and where you found them. These items hold great significance for Aboriginal people and are protected under NSW law. You can find out more information at the Office of Environment and Heritage website.
  4. Preserving Nungawal language is very important to local Aboriginal people. The language can be spoken by everyone and children especially should be encouraged to use it. Tyronne taught us how to say thank you in the Ngunawal language ‘djan yimaba’. You can find more information about Ngunawal language in the links section below.
  5. Some Aboriginal people used to bend over and weigh down trees in order to use the trunk as a structure to build a shelter on. In winter more permanent structures and caves were used as housing and remains of stone structures built by Aboriginal people have been found in our region.
Tyronne explaining how tree trunks were bent to make a support for a bark shelter.

5. Plant species commonly found in the Bungendore area had special uses for Aboriginal people. For example, the Cherry Ballart (Exocarpus cupressiformis) looks like a small cypress tree and the sweet, juicy fruit provide a spring time snack, the sap can be used for snake bite, the fresh leaves are used for headaches, the roots as clap sticks and it can also be used as a shade tree to camp under. The plant was is used as an indicator species for the coming season.

Hardenbergia violacea used as a tea and for rope.

Other plants that we learnt more about on the walk and talk were Hardenbergia violacea, Indigofera australis, Diannella species, Lomandra species, Acacia species, Cassinia quinquefaria, Microseris lanceolata and Bulbine bulbosa. Tyronne told us about  uses of these plants for food basket weaving and stunning fish. Some of them are poisonous and should not be eaten. Find out more about these plants and their uses by following the links below.

 

Australian National Botanic Gardens Aboriginal Trail

PDF Information Resources Aboriginal Plant Uses – Australian National Botanic Gardens

6. According to local Aboriginal culture there are six seasons in a calendar year and no autumn. The calendar includes two summers, two winters and two springs, each with their signature weather pattern and special traditions.

Other useful information and contacts

Protect and manage objects – Office of Environment and Heritage

Aboriginal Plant Uses in Southern Australia

https://www.anbg.gov.au/aborig.s.e.aust/exocarpus-cupressiformis.html

ACT Environment and Planning Website for indigenous NRM

Plant Net Flora online – http://plantnet.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au/

Aboriginal Cultural Heritage ACT pdf brochure – includes pictures of plants

Ngunnawal Plant Use book

Ngunnawal language – simple list of words

Language revival project – https://aiatsis.gov.au/research/research-themes/ngunawal-language-revival-project

Indigenous Weather Calendar BOM

http://www.bom.gov.au/iwk/calendars/gariwerd.shtml

Indigenous weather knowledge

http://www.bom.gov.au/iwk/calendars/gariwerd.shtml

Healing the land: techniques for managing erosion

Community spirit, professional expertise and practical demonstrations were a feature of this erosion and revegetation workshop. Guest speakers David Hilhorst and Andy Taylor from South East Local Land Services and Scott Soper led an inspiring and educational day.

One of our participants Chris Curtis has kindly agreed to allow us to publish his notes and photographs from the day – see the link below.

Erosion workshop notes PDF

This wattle is providing protection to help other plant species to grow

Here are more ideas and strategies from the workshop.

Pioneer plants such as wattle add nitrogen to the soil and improve soil fertility and structure. You can use branches from these plants (preferably with seed attached) and lay them over bare ground to create a nursery for seeds and/or or tube stock.

Locally grown small trees including wattles, kunzea and tea tree can be lopped and placed strategically on an eroded gully floor, the branches can be bundled and pegged creating a brush raft. The raft areas catch sediment that can be direct seeded using native grasses, sedges and rushes.

Look for wet patches above and below small erosion head cuts and use these sites for revegetation using locally sourced plants. Use bendy plants that slow the speed of the water including Juncus species, Carex appressa and Lomandra species. Trees that grow thick trunks should be avoided in confined gully beds and streams because tree trunks can deflect flood waters into banks and exacerbate the erosion problem.

Protect your soil from erosion is by maintaining 70- 80% ground cover in your paddocks and by limiting stock access to dams and dam spill ways. Erosion can be caused by overland flows from vegetation removal, dams, roads and gullies and by subsurface water movement. You can use simple clues to help you read your land, for example, are larger trees dying in patches? This could indicate that salinity is a problem. The eroded site at the property we visited was most likely being impacted by saline ground water which we learned also affects the water quality in the dam.

Mapping shallow ground water with an electrical conductivity survey gives an insight into the depth of the water resource and the salinity of an area. Windellama Landcare owns electrical conductivity (EC) mapping equipment and it can be hired for use by property owners and contractors. You should seek advice from South East Local Land Services to help you plan your erosion control work and EC mapping – Contact your Local Land Services office.

Learning how to do a simple sodicity test
Sodic soil demonstration by Andy Taylor and David Hilhorst

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

An example of sodic soil at the site in Bungendore

Eroded patches of sodic soils in gullies look like candle wax or stalactites. You can do a simple sodicity test using a small clod of soil and a clear dish. If area around the clod becomes cloudy, this indicates that the soil is sodic and might be highly erosive.  Soil sampling of your farm could help you decide if you should be planting salt tolerant species at an eroded site.

Saline and Sodic Soils – the Difference video

Weirs, rock structures and rock/wire mesh weirs are all examples of “controlled activities” that may require a permit. Contact the Office of Water for advice about building structures including dams in drainage lines. As a general principle, water should always be returned to the same drainage line not diverted to another site. Before undertaking major works in water courses and gullies it is wise to check that your contractor has sought the correct approvals.

Contact a water regulatory officer as listed on the Office of Water website, call the licensing information on 1800 353 104 or email information@water.nsw.gov.au for more information.

Stabilising an erosion site above a dam. The hessian rolls were filled with mulch and compost and seeded with grass seed.

Jute or hessian can be used on bare eroded sites to create zones where vegetation can be established. ‘Burritos’ can be made by wrapping jute or hessian fabric around a mixture of forest mulch and compost which can then be laid on the contour and held in place using wire pegs. Mulched areas can then be seeded with a soil conservation grass mix or local native grasses. Once micro climates have been established other plants can be encouraged to grow using the brush raft technique described above.

 

Weeds such as blackberry and serrated tussock can be used as a resource to help provide mulch, organic matter and plant cover at eroded sites if they are already growing there. It is important though to manage weeds to prevent flowering or setting seed by cutting, spraying or manual removal. Chip and spray the weeds or cut the canes and leave them in situ on the gully floor or bank, this slows the flow of water and traps sediment. The area can be then planted with desirable plants and grasses. The thorny plants can act as protection for new plants during establishment. Continual monitoring of weed prone sites is important.

The SIX Maps website can be used to  work out the size of the catchment for an erosion head cut. For example, using SIX Maps, Andy Taylor estimated that for 1 in 50 year high rainfall events, the gully on this farm would have one tonne of water per second flowing over it. That is equivalent to one intermediate bulk container (IBC)/second. Estimating catchment size, soil testing and electrical conductivity testing are just some of the tools that can be used when planning erosion control measures.

Further information and resources

Gully Erosion Assessment and Control Guide

The Farm Dam Handbook

Rural Living Guide – A guide for Rural Landholders in the South East

Guide to Managing Ground Cover – MLA

DPI Erosion Website

Grassland Flora – a field guide for the Southern Tablelands

Native tree and shrub resources

SIX Maps – mapping tool

This event was made possible with funding and in-kind support from South East Local Land Services.

Calf Marking and Cattle Health Workshop

This workshop was an opportunity for a group of small farmers to learn and practice routine animal husbandry procedures for cows and calves. ‘Marking’ refers to a set of husbandry practices for calves that includes vaccination, ear tagging, castration, dehorning and mothering up.

See the MLA’s A Guide to Best Practice Husbandry in Beef Cattle for information on calf marking.

Discussions from the workshop are outlined below.

  • Vaccinations are given subcutaneously – just under the skin. The best place to give the injection is on the side of the calf’s neck (see fact sheet on vaccinations below for a diagram). The 5-in-1 vaccination covers five clostridial diseases, namely pulpy kidney (enterotoxaemia), black disease, tetanus, blackleg, and malignant oedema. 7-in-1 covers the same diseases as 5-in-1 plus Leptospira harjo and Leptospira Pomona. Using 7-in-1 is recommended if you are keeping the stock for breeding. Keep vaccines cool in an esky while you are marking. Hygiene is important – keep the needles and injection site on the animal clean. To be effective these vaccines require an initial dose, a booster 4-6 weeks later and an annual booster.

Future Beef Knowledge Centre information on vaccinations for beef cattle

  • Zoonosis refers to a disease or infection that can transfer from animals to humans – examples include Q Fever and Leptospirosis. People who work with animals should be vaccinated against Q-fever and understand how to minimise the risks of contracting these diseases.
  • Castrate calves as young as possible (around two weeks of age), not more than 3 months or younger than 24 hours. The rubber ring method is the easiest and safest method for small farmers to use on young calves. Using analgesia (pain relief) such as local anaesthetic and/or anti-inflammatory drugs could be beneficial to reduce pain and swelling at the castration site, and improve welfare. There is a 90 day withholding period for some medications given to calves.
  • If you have any concerns about the condition of stock in your area you can contact the NSW Stock Squad or RSPCA. It is not anonymous but it is strictly confidential and protected in accordance with the NSW Privacy and Personal Information Protection Act.

NSW Stock Squad Cooma 02 6452 0099

RSPCA 1300 CRUELTY or online

Additional resources from workshop

Presentation from Dr Lou Baskind – District Veterinarian South East Local Land Services

Prime Fact – Cattle Producers Biosecurity Duty

Spotted anything unusual?

Call the Emergency Animal Disease Watch Hotline 1800 675 888

Do not be afraid to contact or report to your District Veterinarian. District veterinarians can help with diagnostic investigations of unexplained deaths or herd syndromes and there are often funding arrangements in place. Some specific signs to report if noted in cattle: sudden or unexpected deaths, red or brown urine, cattle ticks, chronic wasting conditions, lumps along the neck, cysts in meat, or abortions/vaginal discharge.

Other cattle disease information

Tick Fever

Bovine cysticercosis

Enzootic bovin leucosis

Bovine Johnes Disease

Parasitic diseases

Contacting South East Local Land Services

Email enquiry.southeast@lls.nsw.gov.au

Braidwood 02 4842 2594
Goulburn 02 4824 1900
Yass 02 6118 7700

Other workshop summaries for cattle

Cattle Husbandry for introductory information on cattle husbandry and links to the National Livestock Information Scheme (NLIS) and National Vendor Declarations (NVDs) which must be used when buying, selling and moving cattle.

This workshop was funded by the Australian Government and supported by South East Local Land Services. Thanks Dr Lou Baskind from South East Local Land Services for her contribution to this summary.